Friday, May 8, 2009



Si Jose Garcia Villa (1908-1997), isang makata, kritiko, manunulat ng maikling kwento at pintor, ay isang Pambansang Alagad ng Sining sa Panitikan. Siya ay may sagisag-panulat na Doveglion na mula sa Dove, Eagle at Lion. Isa siya sa mga pinakamagaling na magsulat sa Ingles. Kilala siya sa paggamit ng mga matatalim na salita, parirala at pangungusap.

Ipinanganak siya noong 5 Agosto 1908 sa Singalong, Maynila at supling nina Simeon Villa at Guia Garcia.

Edukasyon at Karera

Nagtapos si Villa ng pag-aaral sa UP High School noong 1925 at pumasok sa Kolehiyo ng Medisina sa Unibersidad ng Pilipinas. Ngunit hindi niya natapos ang kanyang pag-aaral ng medisina. Sinasabi na pagpipinta ang naging unang interes ni Villa ngunit siya ay lumipat sa pagsusulat, matapos na mabasa niya ang Winesburg, Ohio ni Sherwood Anderson.
Noong 1930, nanalo si Villa sa isang patimpalak sa pagsusulat mula sa Philippine Free Press para sa kanyang “Mir-i-nisa” at ginamit niya ang kanyang napanalunan salapi upang makapunta sa Estados Unidos. Doon, siya ay nag-aral sa University of New Mexico at pagkatapos, ay sa Columbia University.
Nagturo siya sa City College of New York mula 1964-1973. Nagsilbi rin siya sa Philippine Mission to the UN mula 1954-1963 at naging bise-konsul noong 1965.

Mga Naiambag

Koleksyon ng mga Tula

• Have Come, Am Here, 1942
• Volume Two, 1949
• Selected Poems and New, 1958
• Poems 55, 1962
• Appasionata: Poems in Praise of Love, 1979

Iba pang mga akda

• The Best Poems of 1931
• Fifteen Literary Landmarks, 1932
at ang mga antolohiya na:
• Twenty-Five Best Stories of 1928, 1929
• The Doveglion Book of Philippine Poetry by Jose Garcia Villa, 1993

Siya rin ay gumawa ng seleksyon ng mga pinakamahusay ng maiikling kwento sa Pilipinas na nakasulat sa Ingles, mula 1927 hanggang 1941. Tinawag ang mga ito na Roll of Honor at lumabas sa Philippines Herald, Philippine Free Press at sa Graphic.

Mga Parangal

• American Academy of Arts and Letters' Poetry Award
• Shelley Memorial Award
• Guggenheim, Bollingen at Rockefeller fellowships sa pagsulat ng tula
• Karangalang banggit sa Commonwelth Literary Awards, 1940
• Unang gantimpala sa UP Golden Jubilee Literary Contest, 1958
• Honorary doctorate of literature sa Far Eastern University, 1959
• Rizal Pro-Patria Award, 1961
• Republic Cultural Heritage Award para sa tula at maikling kwento, 1962
• Honorary doctorate sa panitikan mula sa UP, 1973.

Noong 12 Hulyo 1973, si Villa ay kinilala bilang Pambansang Alagad ng Sining sa Panitikan.

Jose Garcia Villa

Jose Garcia Villa (August 5, 1908 – February 7, 1997) was a Filipino poet, literary critic, short story writer, and painter. He was awarded the National Artist of the Philippines title for literature in 1973,[1] as well as the Guggenheim Fellowship in creative writing by Conrad Aiken.[2] He is known to have introduced the "reversed consonance rime scheme" in writing poetry, as well as the extensive use of punctuation marks—especially commas, which made him known as the Comma Poet.[3] He used the penname Doveglion (derived from "Dove, Eagle, Lion"), based on the characters he derived from himself. These animals were also explored by another poet e.e. cummings in Doveglion, Adventures in Value, a poem dedicated to Villa.


Early life

Villa was born on August 5, 1908, in Manila's Singalong district. His parents were Simeon Villa (a personal physician of Emilio Aguinaldo, the founding President of the First Philippine Republic) and Guia Garcia (a wealthy landowner).[3][4] He graduated from University of the Philippines High School in 1925. Villa enrolled on a pre-medicine course in UP, but then switched to pre-law. However, he realized that his true passion was in the arts. Villa first tried painting, but then turned into writing after reading Winesburg, Ohio by Sherwood Anderson.

Writing career

Villa was considered the leader of Filipino "artsakists", a group of writers who believe that art should be "for art's sake" hence the term. He once pronounced that "art is never a means; it is an end in itself."[5] Villa's tart poetic style was considered too aggressive at that time. In 1929 he published Man Songs, a series of erotic poems, which the administrators in UP found too bold and was even fined P70 for obscenity by the Manila Court of First Instance. In that same year, Villa won Best Story of the Year from Philippine Free Press magazine for Mir-I-Nisa. He also received P1,000 prize money, which he used to migrate for the United States.

He enrolled at the University of New Mexico, wherein he was one of the founders of Clay, a mimeographed literary magazine.[3][6] He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree, and pursued post-graduate work at Columbia University.[5] Villa had gradually caught the attention of the country's literary circles, one of the few Asians to do so at that time.

After the publication of Footnote to Youth in 1933, Villa switched from writing prose to poetry, and published only a handful of works until 1942. During the release of Have Come, Am Here in 1942, he introduced a new rhyming scheme called "reversed consonance" wherein, according to Villa: "The last sounded consonants of the last syllable, or the last principal consonant of a word, are reversed for the corresponding rhyme. Thus, a rhyme for near would be run; or rain, green, reign."

In 1949, Villa presented a poetic style he called "comma poems", wherein commas are placed after every word. In the preface of Volume Two, he wrote: "The commas are an integral and essential part of the medium: regulating the poem's verbal density and time movement: enabling each word to attain a fuller tonal value, and the line movement to become more measures."

Villa worked as an associate editor for New Directions Publishing in New York between 1949 to 1951, and then became director of poetry workshop at City College of New York from 1952 to 1960. He then left the literary scene and concentrated on teaching, first lecturing in The New School for Social Research from 1964 to 1973, as well as conducting poetry workshops in his apartment. Villa was also a cultural attaché to the Philippine Mission to the United Nations from 1952 to 1963, and an adviser on cultural affairs to the President of the Philippines beginning 1968.


On February 5, 1997, at the age of 88, Villa was found unconscious in his New York apartment and was rushed to St. Vincent Hospital in Greenwich area. His death two days later was attributed to "cerebral stroke and multilobar pneumonia". He was buried on February 10 in St. John's Cemetery in New York, wearing a Barong Tagalog.

New York centennial celebration

On August 5 and 6, 2008, Villa's centennial celebration began with poem reading at the Jefferson Market Library, at 425 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue) at the corner of 10th St. In the launch of Doveglion, Collected Poems, Penguin Classics’ reissue of Jose Garcia Villa's poems, edited by John Edwin Cowen, Villa's literary trustee, will be be read by book introducer Luis H. Francia. Then, the Leonard Lopate Show (on WNYC AM 820 and FM 93.9) will interview Edwin Cohen and Luis H. Francia on the "Pope of Greenwich Villages" life and work, followed by the Asia Pacific Forum show, WBAI, 8-9 p.m., FM, 99.9, at


In 1946 Villa married Rosemarie Lamb, with whom he has two sons, Randy and Lance. They divorced ten years later. He also has three grandchildren.

As an editor, Villa first published Philippine Short Stories: Best 25 Short Stories of 1928 in 1929, an anthology of Filipino short stories written in English that were mostly published in the literary magazine Philippine Free Press for that year. It is the second anthology to have been published in the Philippines, after Philippine Love Stories by editor Paz Márquez-Benítez in 1927. His first collection of short stories that he has written were published under the title Footnote to Youth: Tales of the Philippines and Others in 1933; while in 1939, Villa published Many Voices, his first collection poems, followed by Poems by Doveglion in 1941. Other collections of poems include Have Come, Am Here (1942), Volume Two (1949), and Selected Poems and New (1958).

In 1962, Villa published four books namely Villa's Poems 55, Poems in Praise of Love, Selected Stories, and The Portable Villa. It was also in that year when he edited The Doveglion Book of Philippine Poetry in English from 1910. Three years later, he released a follow-up for The Portable Villa entitled The Essential Villa.[10] Villa, however, went under "self-exile" after the 1960s, even though he was nominated for several major literary awards including the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. This was perhaps because of oppositions between his formalist style and the advocates of proletarian literature who misjudged him as a petty bourgeois. Villa only "resurfaced" in 1993 with an anthology entitled Charlie Chan Is Dead, which was edited by Jessica Hagedorn.

Several reprints of Villa's past works were done, including Appasionata: Poems in Praise of Love in 1979, A Parlement of Giraffes (a collection of Villa's poems for young readers, with Tagalog translation provided by Larry Francia), and The Anchored Angel: Selected Writings by Villa that was edited by Eileen Tabios with a foreword provided by Hagedorn (both in 1999).
Among his popular poems include When I Was No Bigger Than A Huge, an example of his "comma poems", and The Emperor's New Sonnet (a part of Have Come, Am Here) which is basically a blank sheet of paper.

Writing style

Villa described his use of commas after every word as similar to "Seurat's architectonic and measured pointillism—where the points of color are themselves the medium as well as the technique of statement". This unusual style forces the reader to pause after every word, slowing the pace of the poem resulting to what Villa calls "a lineal pace of dignity and movement". An example of Villa's "comma poems" can be found in an excerpt of his work #114:

“ In, my, undream, of, death,
I, unspoke, the, Word.
Since, nobody, had, dared,
With, my, own, breath,
I, broke, the, cord! ”

Villa also created verses out of already-published proses and forming what he liked to call "Collages". This excerpt from his poem #205 was adapted from Letters of Rainer Maria Rilke, volume 1:

“ And then suddenly,
A life on which one could
Stand. Now it carried one and
Was conscious of one while it
Carried. A stillness in which
Reality and miracle

Had become identical -
Stillness of that greatest
Stillness. Like a plant that is to
Become a tree, so was I
Taken out of the little container,
Carefully, while earth ”

While Villa agreed with William Carlos Williams that "prose can be a laboratory for metrics", he tried to make the adapted words his own. His opinion on what makes a good poetry was in contrast to the progressive styles of Walt Whitman, which he said: "Poetry should evoke an emotional response. The poet has a breathlessness in him that he converts into a breathlessness of words, which in turn becomes the breathlessness of the reader. This is the sign of a true poet. All other verse, without this appeal, is just verse."
He also advised his students who aspire to become poets not to read any form of fiction in order for their poems "(not become) contaminated by narrative elements", insisting that real poetry is "written with words, not ideas".

Critical reception

Villa was considered as a powerful literary influence in the Philippines throughout much of the 20th century, although he had lived most of his life in the United States. His writing style, as well as his personality and staunch opinions on writing, has often made him considered as an eccentric. Francia explained in Asiaweek magazine, "In a world of English-language poetry dominated by British and Americans, Villa stood out for the ascetic brilliance of his poetry and for his national origin." Fellow Filipino writer Salvador P. López described Villa as "the one Filipino writer today who it would be futile to deride and impossible to ignore … the pace-setter for an entire generation of young writers, the mentor laying down the law for the whole tribe, the patron-saint of a cult of rebellious moderns." However, Villa was accused of having little faith on the Filipinos' ability to write creatively in English, saying that "poetry in English has no prospects whatsoever in the Philippines -- i.e., ... that it cannot be written by Filipino writers. An exception or two may arise after a long period of time, but these writers will remain exceptions. The reason why Filipino writers are at a disadvantage in the writing of English poetry -- is that they have no oneness with the English language."
In a review to Footnote to Youth, The New York Times wrote, "For at least two years the name of Jose Garcia Villa has been familiar to the devotees of the experimental short story...They knew, too, that he was an extremely youthful Filipino who had somehow acquired the ability to write a remarkable English prose and who had come to America as a student in the summer of 1930." This comment brought out two opposing impressions of him: as a literary genius, and merely as a writer of English as a second language.

During America's Formalist Period in literature, American writers admired Villa's work. Mark Van Doren wrote in reaction to Selected Poems and New as "...So natural yet in its daring so weird, a poet rich and surprising, and not to be ignored". Babette Deutsch wrote in The New Republic that Have Come, Am Here reveals that Villa's concern for "ultimate things, the self and the universe. He is also on visiting terms with the world. He is more interested in himself than in the universe, and he greets the world with but a decent urbanity." Although she viewed Villa's range as somewhat narrow, he "soars high and plunges deep". British poet Edith Sitwell revealed in the preface of Villa's Selected Poems and New that she experienced "a shock" upon reading Have Come, Am Here, most notably the poem #57 as "a strange poem of ineffable beauty, springing straight from the depths of Being. I hold that this is one of the most wonderful short poems of our time, and reading it I knew that I was seeing for the first time the work of a poet with a great, even an astonishing, and perfectly original gift."[4] Meanwhile, noted American poet Garret Hongo described Villas as "one of the greatest pioneers of Asian American literature...our bitter, narcissistic angel of both late Modernism and early post-colonialism."[11] In his introduction to Footnote to Youth, American writer Edward J. O'Brien—who dedicated his collection Best American Short Stories of 1932 to Villa—hailed the poet as "one of a half-dozen American short-story writers who count". Meanwhile, in reaction to Villa's poems, e.e. cummings wrote, "and i am alive to see a man against the sky"

Critics were divided about Villa's "comma poems". On one side, they were irritated by it, calling them "gimmicky". Leonard Casper wrote in New Writings from the Philippines that the technique of putting commas after every word "is as demonstrably malfunctional as a dragging foot". Ten years later, Casper continued to criticize Villa because he "still uses the 'commas' with inadequate understanding and skill". On the other hand, Sitwell wrote in The American Genius magazine that the comma poem "springs with a wild force, straight from the poet's being, from his blood, from his spirit, as a fire breaks from wood, or as a flower grows from its soil".
Despite his success in the United States, Villa was largely dismissed in mainstream American literature and has been criticized by Asian American scholars for not being "ethnic" enough.


Villa was granted a Guggenheim Fellowship in creative writing by American writer Conrad Aiken, wherein he was also awarded a $1,000 prize for "outstanding work in American literature", as well as a fellowship from Bollingen Foundation. He was also bestowed an Academy Award for Literature from The American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1943 Villa also won first prize in the Poetry Category of UP Golden Jubilee Literary Contests in 1958, as well as the Pro Patria Award for literature in 1961, and the Heritage Award for poetry and short stories a year later. He was conferred with a honoris causa doctorate degree for literature by Far Eastern University in Manila on 1959 (and later by University of the Philippines), and the National Artist Award for Literature in 1973

He was one of three Filipinos, along with novelist Jose Rizal and translator Nick Joaquin, included in World Poetry: An Anthology of Verse from Antiquity to Our Time published in 2000, which featured over 1,600 poems written by hundreds of poets in different languages and culture within a span of 40 centuries dating from the development of early writing in ancient Sumer and Egypt.

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